Aim- To grow spinach on different media.


The spinach growth was performed on different media such as coco-peat, bio-char, 50%natural soil, and 50% biochar, vermiculite, & natural soil. In this experiment, all I need is a tray for growing spinach and water. Let’s see about the different media in detail.


  • Cocopeat is naturally extracted from the husk of a coconut
  • It is fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut.
  • Cocopeat is used as a soil conditioner.
  • When the plants are grown exclusively in cocopeat it is important to add nutrients according to the specific plants need.
  • It has a high water holding capacity.
  • Acceptable pH and EC.
  • Good aeration.
  • Retains physical properties longer.


  • Biochar is produced by pyrolysis process.
  • It is produced by heating biomass.
  • It is made by burning organic material from agricultural and forest waste.
  • Biochar is made in the same manner as charcoal but it is intended for utilisation as an absorbent.
  • It shares properties which activated carbon and charcoal.
  • Improves soil fertility due to its ability to retain soil nutrients for longer periods of time, biochar reduces the need of chemical fertilizer.
  • Different kind of biochar produced depending on the type of organic material used and the temperature that is reach during pyrolysis.


Related image
  • Vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral
  • Exfoliation occurs when the mineral is sufficiently, and the effect is routinely produced in commercial furnaces.
  • Vermiculite is formed by weathering or hydrothermal alteration of biotite or phlogopite.
  • Large commercial vermiculite mines currently exist in Russia, South Africa, China, and Brazil.
  • Vermiculite was first described in 1824 for an occurrence in Millbury, Massachusetts.
  • It typically occurs as an alteration product at the contact between felsic and mafic or ultramafic rocks such as pyroxenites and dunites.
  • It also occurs in carbonatites and metamorphosed magnesium-rich limestone.


  • To improve the water holding capacity & cations of soil.
  • soil less farming can be done.
  • Improves produvtivity.
  • Gives efficient kitchen gardening

Materials Required-

  1. Tray (length 47.5 ,breadth 29,height 5 cm resp.)
  2. Spinach seeds (100 gm.)
  3. Water.
  4. Natural Soil.
  5. Coco-peat.
  6. Vermiculite.
  7. Bio-char(coconut,mustard).

1.Water Holding Capacity Procedure –

  1. In this process the water holding capacity was done by percolation method.
  2. The water was added to the sample placed in the funnel with the covered filter paper.
  3. The water was drained out from the filter paper.
  4. As the time was not given to the sample for absorption.
  5. This method was concluded as improper.

2.Water Holding Capacity Procedure-

  • 10 gm of each sample was taken for the determination of water holding capacity.
  • 100 ml of water was added in 10 gm of sample.
  • And it was kept for 24 hrs.
  • Then the water and the sample were separated by using the filter paper by percolation method.
  • weighing of sample was then done.
  • And also the remaining water was calculated.
  • Then the wt. of filter paper with absorbed water was calculated differently.
  • And then the wt of filter paper was subtracted from the wt.of sample along with wet filter paper.


  • wt of a sample- 10 gm.
  • quantity of water- 100 ml.
  • wt of a sample after adding water- 17.2 gm.
  • water absorbed- 8.7 ml.


  • wt of a sample – 10 gm.
  • quantity of water added – 100 ml.
  • wt of a sample after adding water -31.98 gm.
  • water absorbed- 33.73ml.

3.Coco-peat –

  • wt of sample-10 gm.
  • quantity of water-100 ml.
  • wt of a sample after adding water -70.68 gm.
  • water absorbed- 72.73 ml.


  • wt of a sample – 10 gm.
  • quantity of water -100 ml.
  • wt of a sample after adding water- 59.09 gm
  • water absorbed – 61.73 ml


  • wt of a sample- 10 gm.
  • quantity of water- 100 ml.
  • wt of a sample after adding water – 15.28 gm.
  • water absorbed – 15.73 ml.

Bed Preparation-

Bed preparation was done on 8/06/2019

1.Tray A;

  • media used – 50% soil & 50% bio-char(coconut).
  • wt of media – 1200 gm soil + 1200 gm bio-char.
  • seed – 20 gm

2.Tray B;

  • media used – bio-char (Mustard).
  • wt of media -410 gm.
  • seed -20 gm.

3.Tray C;

  • media used – soil.
  • wt of media – 3500 gm.
  • seed – 20 gm

4.Tray D;

  • media used – coco-peat.
  • wt of media -600 gm.
  • seed -20 gm.

5.Tray E ;

  • media used – Vermiculite.
  • wt of media – 1250 gm.
  • seed – 20 gm.

Spinach length-

Date-12/06/2019 spinach growth was started-

Tray ATray BTray CTray DTray E
4.5 cm5.4 cm _4.8 cm7.9 cm


Tray ATray BTray CTray DTray E
5.8 cm9.5 cm4.5 cm7.0 cm8.1 cm

Reading of temperature and relative humidity-

Inside temp(degree celsius)
34.4 38.735.6
Outside temp(degree celsius)33.937.534.5
Inside humidity(%)56.441.857.4
Outside humidity(%)52.738.256
Date-12/06/2019 Morning Afternoon Evening
Inside temp(degree celsius) 29.829.725.7
Outside temp(degree celsius) 30.330.325.7
Inside humidity(%) 57.458.275.6
Outside humidity(%) 58.356.675.9
Inside temp(degree celsius) 30.431.729
Outside temp(degree celsius) 3032.929.3
Inside humidity(%) 57.559.565
Outside humidity(%) 59.954.863
Date-14/06/2019 Morning Afternoon Evening
Inside temp(degree celsius) 30.232.430
Outside temp(degree celsius) 313529
Inside humidity(%) 585566.2
Outside humidity(%) 57.553.268.5
Date-15/06/2019 Morning Afternoon Evening
Inside temp(degree celsius) 29.933.229.8
Outside temp(degree celsius) 30.43529
Inside humidity(%) 60.558.361.5
Outside humidity(%) 58.95663
Date-17/06/2019 Morning Afternoon Evening
Inside temp(degree celsius) 29.8 29.7 25.7
Outside temp(degree celsius) 30.3 30.3 25.7
Inside humidity(%) 57.4 58.2 75.6
Outside humidity(%) 58.3 56.6 75.9

Conclusion: It was found that the growth of spinach was efficient in the mustard bio-char. It also increases the water holding capacity of the soil.