List of contents

  • Introduction
  • Objective
  • Benefits
  • Action plan
  • Design
  • Pump & nozzle selection
  • Wiring & embedded programming
  • Water tests & micro-nutrients
  • Putting all together
  • Keeping track of plants and system


Aeroponics is process of growing plant in an air or mist environment without use of soil and water(Hydroponics). It uses a liquid nutrient solution as a growing medium and essential minerals to sustain plant growth aeroponics is conducted without a growing medium. It is sometimes considered a type of hydroponics, since water is used in aeroponics to transmit nutrients. Aeroponics is plant growing technique in which the roots hang suspended in the air while nutrient solution is delivered to them in the form of fine mist. It uses considerably less water than traditional agriculture.Since, air is acts medium to grow plants, considerably less maintenance is needed. Remove the limitation of nature of soil.

Ashram wants to develop this idea so that the near by farmers can adopt it being water conservative technique typically in drought prone area of Nagar, Solapur District in Kokan during summer months.


1.Running of two aeroponic prototype system for six months.

2.Scale up of system for 25 tomato plants.

3.Developing nutrition package for tomato.

4.Temperature & humidity sensor & motor automation.


  • Less energy requirement.
  • Considerably less space required because of vertical structure can be accomplished with Aeroponics technique used.
  • Mobility.
  • Roots are directly exposed to oxygen.
  • Plants growth are fast compared with other methods.
  • Less maintenance.
  • Disease free plants.

Action plan

1.Pump and its pressure calculations.

2. Selection of proper nozzle size.

3.Plants & nutrients requirement analysis. (water testing EC,PH,TDS & nutrients).

4.Battery selection according to consumption of pump and all sensors.

5.Selection growing media for plants.

6.Design and fabrication of overall system.

7.Calculation of amount of water sprinkled.

8.Energy audit analysis.

9.Track of plants growth.

10.Timer,temperature humidity sensor interfacing with controller.

11.Filter design for recycling mist water..


Aeroponics V1.1

So as we know Aeroponics is plant growing technique, we can achieve these system in various ways of structure.After going through several structures available on web we jumped to conclusion that we are going with our new design. To achieve Aeroponics enclosed area is needed we can make it so by many ways.These is my first prototype model so, I want to go with small structure.

To make enclosed area we are using container made with Acrylic material.So that inside that at four walls we can create passage for plants.And we are keeping mister nozzle at the bottom so that all plants will get descent water to roots. Also we are making provision for recycling water, at the bottom side we are creating some passages to take out all water that through by mister nozzle.

But making container with the help of Acrylic is more costlier and not reliable that is why we are searching for another options. So we have dropped this idea at design level.

Aeroponics V1.2

For prototype purpose instead of using Acrylic as a container, We are using PVC(Poly Vinyl chloride) pipe as a container which is made up of thermoplastic material. Reason behind choosing this material is it is cheap and easily available. Also it is used for piping ,electronics insulation, wire and cable insulation. Because of wide applications of PVC and we are using water and electronics materials in this project we have decided to go with PVC pipe.

image 1.2.1-PVC pipe

So we are using 4-inch diameter pipe of height 2 feet. We taking out three plants means we have to make three holes. Now next thing is where to rest the plants.

So we are using PVC elbow pipe.

image 1.2.2-PVC elbow
image 1.2.3-creating hole in pipe

We have created those holes with the help of vibrator grinder machine and file for remove fine amounts of material.

image 1.2.4-Creating hole with the help of vibrating grinder
image 1.2.5-Fitting

We have cut this elbow from middle so we can get two pot holders. But unfortunately it is not working. Due to fitting issues. Length of elbow is insufficient.

So we are trying to fit small PVC pipe in that same hole. But again fitting issues arise.So we decided to make profile for hole on CAD software. reason behind that is to get clear cut idea of how the hole and pot holder should be.

image 1.2.6-CAD design for getting hole shape
image 1.2.7-Profile for expected hole
image 1.2.8-Profile on paper
image 1.2.9-Actual shape of pot holder

The purpose of making CAD design is to get proper hole dimensions as well as pot holder shape and size.

image 1.2.10-Fitting of pipe and pot holder

Bingo……done with proper fitting.

Now, next thing is water container. We need water reservoir such that it can hold weight of pipe container along with weight of three fully grown plants. Also it should be made up of insulating material because we are using pump and other electronics stuff near by.

image 1.2.11-Village shop

We went to shop to select proper reservoir tank. We need container along with lid covered on it.

image 1.2.13-water container

We are adding nutrient rich water inside it. On top of this bucket we are placing rest of the system.To rest 4 inch pipe on lid of bucket we need some supporting medium , So we are using Tail Piece for that purpose.

image 1.2.14-Tail piece

Now we are going make hole on lid and put tail piece on bucket lid.

image 1.2.15-fixing tail piece to lid

Mist Nozzle

The pump, powered by a trigger, forces the liquid through a nozzle that breaks up the flow of the liquid, turning it into a fine mist or stream. Mist is a phenomenon caused by small droplets of water suspended in air.
The key to root development in an aeroponic environment is the size of the water droplet.
Water droplet size is crucial for sustaining aeroponic growth. Too large a water droplet means less oxygen is available to the root system. Too fine a water droplet, such as those generated by the ultrasonic mister, produce excessive root hair without developing a lateral root system for sustained growth in an aeroponic system.
mist of 5-50 micro-meters micro-droplets is necessary for long-term aeroponic growing.

image 1.2.16-Mister nozzle

We have tried with this mister nozzle but we could not get sufficient droplet size. And also such mister has clogging problem that is why we are not going with this further.

image 1.2.17-nozzle

After first mister nozzle we have tried with this nozzle. Problem with nozzle is its not creating a mist.


Pump in these project is used for forcing water to mister nozzle create fine mist of droplet size 5 to 50 micron.

image 1.2.19-pump

Pump is taking water from water reservoir tank and outlet valve of pump is connected to mister nozzle. So to make such arrangement of inlet and outlet pipe connections we have to create holes lid again. And intermediate plate is also involved.

image 1.2.20-intermediate plate

At the center we have attached mister nozzle. And remaining four holes for recycling misted water(water coming back to tank).Net is attached for filtering purpose.

image 1.2.21-Filter


For holding plants pot is needed. Plants are rest on pot and coconut pith is used as holding medium we can use rockwool is well.

image 1.2.22-pot

We are trying with this pot. For holding plant.

image 1.2.23-Pot fitting

But we are facing difficulties while fitting this.So we are finding another solution.And decided to create own 3D printed pot.

image 1.2.24-design of pot
image 1.2.25-3D print of pot

Now adding coco pith inside it.

image 1.2.26-Pot with coco pith

Now for resting all of things like bucket , pump ,controller and adapters we have to make provision.So we are using one wooden sheet for that.

image 1.2.27

Cutting wooden sheet for bucket with the help of vibrating grinder.

image 1.2.28-wooden sheet cutting

Water Testing & Micro-nutrients

In aeroponics system we are adding nutrient rich water to plants. Plants gets lot of nutrients and minerals from soil. But in aeroponics we are not using soil therefore externally we have to give them nutrients.

Water tests done like EC , TDS and Ph.

image 1.2.30-NPK contents
image 1.2.32-NPK
image 1.2.33-solution of NPK

Putting all together

image 1.2.30-final prototype

Unfortunately, after pouring NPK nutrient in water plants dying. And died. Because of plants taken out from soil medium to normal water medium it lasts for four to five days but after adding nutrient they died, because plants not able to handle sudden change in concentration of water.Although we have added nutrient with decent EC and PH value still plants died.

image 1.2.31-dead plant

So, to over come this we have decided to add nutrient with less concentration of NPK nutrient.

Now instead of only changing plants and water we have modified our structure, because it is increasing cost of PVC elbow pipes as well as m-seal.

Refer following link to get idea about modified structure making—–>

Also we have changed the plants from Basil to cucumber, cabbage & lettuce.

This system is working smooth and results is also superior.

Within two days we can able to see the growth of roots.And on fourth day we can see the flowers too.