The Black soldier Flies are sleek looking that many confuse with a Wasp. However like most flies, the Black Soldier Flies only have two wings (Wasp has four)and does not possess a stinger. Although the loud buzzing they create when flying is enough to concern many people, adult soldier flies pose no danger. The Black Soldier Fly is often associated with the outdoor and livestock, usually around decaying organic matter such as animal waste and plant material. Since Black Soldier fly larvae consuming decaying matter, they have been used to reduce animal manure in commercial swine and poultry facilities. Although they are not known as a disease vector, adult soldier flies are a potential mechanical vector of various pathogens. A more likely negative interaction would be accidental ingestion of Black Soldier Fly larvae by animal or human. The adult larvae are Black and Blue in color and some have metallic appearance. The adult soldiers are ranges from 15 to 20 mm in length. The female BSF deposits a mass of about 500 eggs in crack and crevices near or in decaying matter such as dung, garbage and other organic waste. The eggs hatch into larvae in about 4-5 days. Each oval shaped egg is about 1 mm in length and pale Yellow in color. The larvae can reach 27 mm in length and 6 mm in width in 14 days. They are whitish color with small projection mouth part. The larvae pass through six instars and require approximately 14 days completing development. During development BSF larvae are insatiable feeders. As adults they do not need to feed and reply on the fats stored from the larval stage. Before pupation, the sixth instar larvae disperse from the feeding site to dry sheltered areas to initiate pupation. The exoskeleton (skin) darkens and a pupa develops within 15-20 days. Pupation requires about two weeks. . Also for growing and multiplication of Black Soldier Flies the system required necessary environment, in which temperature required about 30°c-35°c, humidity is about 70% and darkness required at the stage larvae undergoes the pupation period.


  1. To develop the system with necessary environment for multiplication of  Black Soldier Flies.

Scientific classification:

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Hexapoda
Class Insecta
Subclass Pterygota
Infraclaase Neoptera
Order Diptera
Suborder Beachycera
Family Sratiomyidae  
Sub-family Hermetiinae  
Genus Hermetia  
Species Hermetia illucens  

II.Problem and defination

For decaying the organic waste, Black Soldier Flies are used. It is known from the study that, BSF requires specific conditions for completing their lifecycle. The specific conditions like temperature, humidity, darkness. The temperature requires about 30°c-35°c, humidity is about 70% and darkness required till BSF undergoes the pupation period.

Life phases of BSF-

  1. Eggs stage
  2. Larvae stage
  3. Pre-pupation stage
  4. Pupation stage
  5. Fly stage

Challenge is to develop the system which can maintain the above mentioned conditions.



         For development of the system with necessary conditions for the multiplication of BSF, following literatures reviewed.

Limaye.T.N et al.(2018) [1]– This book is for study and understanding the lifecycle of Black Soldier Flies and to take the knowledge about growing and multiplication of Black Soldier Flies, and also how to maintain their necessary conditions. Also information about required structures and how it fabricates for producing Black Soldier Flies 

Paul Donahue et al.(2017) [2]– Technical handbook of domestication and production of dipteral Black Soldier Flies, Hermetia illucens. This technical book which was prepared for a board audience ranging from scientists to producers, sums up knowledge on Black Soldier Flies biology and rearing. So it aims is spreading knowledge and know how gained during the Bioconversion project.


Procedure followed:

  1. Study.
    1. Site selection.
    2. Infrastructure management
    3. Repairing of structure.
    4. Controlling of required conditions.
    5. Experiments to attract BSF
    6. . Design and fabrication of small model

1. Study

            For understanding Black Soldier Flies (BSF), information and data studied from the literature mentioned in chapter IV. Following are the points understood from “Kala Shipai” book of author Mr. Limaye T.N.,

  1. BSF’s history –

            Native of tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the American continent, BSF is nowadays present in the rest of the world, between latitude 40° south and 45° north because the atmosphere in this area is naturally suitable for growth of BSF, and has b een found in many countries across Europe, Africa, Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Asia (Indonesia, Japan, Philippines and Sri Lanka). In India BSF larvae firstly found in Punjab region in the poultry farm.

  • BSF life cycle –

            The BSF life cycle varies between populations and environments (temperature, humidity, light intensity, quality and quantity of available food).      

  • Laying of eggs-

                        The females lay between 320 and 1000 eggs, on a dry substrate in a humid environment using their ovipositor. Eggs are laid into tight rows, close to a potential food source., and they die soon after oviposition. Eggs have an ovoid shape, and are about 1 mm long. They change from beige to yellow/beige colour during the incubation period, which lasts from a little bit more than 4 days, to about 3.5 days at 30°C.

  • Hatching of eggs-

             As soon as larvae have hatched (0.66 mm long), they use surrounding organic matter as a food source. The duration of the larval stage lasts from 4 weeks. Temperature is also a key parameter for larval development and survival rates, the optimum temperature being in the range 30-35°C.

  • Larvae-

              Hermetia illucens characterized by a marked colour change from beige to dark brown, made easier by modification of mouth organs in hooks.

  • Pupation-

            The last stage refers to pupae, which are 12 to 25 mm long.. Generally, the metamorphosis is completed within 2 weeks and males often emerge earlier than females .

  • Flies-

            After emergence, young adults take off after few minutes, after they have unfolded their wings. Mating takes place about 2 days after the emergence of the imago  and another 2 days are needed before egg laying. An imago lives only 5 to 14 days, its life expectancy being unquestionably dependent on body size and on access to water

  • Necessary environment –

            The necessary environment for the growth of BSF is temperature required about 30°c-35°c, humidity is about 70% and darkness required until larvae undergoing to pupation period.

  • Nutrient value of BSF –

            The BSF larvae having the high nutritional value, in the BSF larvae proteins present about 40%-60% also Lipids present about 30%. So the dry larvae are used in feed of poultry and fish farm.

  • Converting the wet organic waste into manure –

           BSF feed the wet organic waste and grow, but after their completion of feeding stage some organic waste is remains. This organic matter is used as feeding to the biogas plant or directly spread in the soil.

  • Reproduction and multiplication of BSF –

           After completion of the pupation period larvae act as a flies and they attracts toward the light. So we provide artificial light in the warehouse. When flies are going into the warehouse, male and female intercourse to each other, and male is die. Female lay eggs and die.

    • Structure required – The proper structure is required for the growth and multiplication of BSF is given below.
  • Eggs nest
  • Puparium
  • Paparium tray
  • Feeding tray
  • Warehouse with light bulb

 2. Site Selection

There are some atmospheric standard conditions for growth,decaying the waste by using Black Soldier Flies, so attending this conditions proper site selection is important. Following are the conditions to be achieve,

1. The normal temperature is required for growth of Black Soldier Flies is about 30°c-35°c

2. Maximum difference between in wet bulb and dry bulb temperature required is about 5°c-6°c, and relative humidity required is about 70% also ventilation is required.

3. Darkness is required from hatching stage of eggs to the completion of pupation period of the larvae. The light is required at the intercourse time of the Black Soldier Flies.

                        It is found that Dome can be suitable location by considering above factors and the structures available in Vigyan Ashram with objective of controlling and/or maintaining temperature, humidity

                        It is found that Dome can be suitable location by considering above factors and the structures available in Vigyan Ashram with objective of controlling and/or maintaining temperature, humidity

3. Infrastructure management

  1. Eggs nests-

           For the laying of eggs to female BSF in the warehouse eggs nests are required. This nests are in the form of wooden strips, 4-5 strips are join together and bind them by rubber band, keep 1cm distance in between the two strips by providing the drawing pin.

2.   Puparim-

                 The Puparium is rack like structure in which feeding trays as well as pupation trays are placed one another one vertically, and black polythene paper is wrapped on whole puparium structure. In the puparium BSF eggs are kept for hatching, after hatching larvae feed the waste which is kept in feeding tray.

3.   Warehouse-

                 Warehouse is the final structure of the project, is fabricate from circular steel bar of 1cm diameter and mosquito net is wrapped around the structure. The bulb is provide in the warehouse. Intercourse of male and female of BSF is done in the warehouse, eggs nests are kept in warehouse for laying the eggs to female BSF.

4.   Feeding tray-

                 Feeding trays are kept in the pupation trays, and the organic waste is kept in the feeding tray. When the larvae hatched then they feed this waste about 15kg having 70%  water by 10000 larvae in 12-15 days.

5.   Puparium trays-

                 BSF larvae are undergoing the pupation period after 15-18 days from hatching. BSF larvae are purane   For undergoing the pupation larvae required dry matter like powder of tree leaf, so keep these type of matter in pupation tray about 5cm thick layer.

4. Repairing project structure

The project structure is required to repair according to Dome size.

  • Cutting of steel bar of warehouse –

          The warehouse bar is cut at the right side four corners to reduce the width of the warehouse.

  • Welding of steel bar-

          Weld the cutting bars at respective corners and join.

  • Repairing of dome door-

          The door of dome was broken, so hinges of the door replaced.

5. Controlling Temperature and Humidity

          For the growth of Black soldier flies controlling temperature and humidity conditions and proper ventilation with darkness is necessary.

  • Temperature-

          To reduce temperature inside the dome, outer surface of dome covered by Styrofoam and these foams are covered by shed net. In Winter if temperature goes below the required then due to foam, temperature can maintained at required level in dome. Table 5.1 shows the data of temperatures and humidity inside the dome with current arrangements around the dome.

Table no.5.1 Data of temperature and humidity,

Sr. no Time Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature
1. 11 am 25°c 20°c
2. 12 am 28°c 22°c
3. 1 am 30°c 22°c
4. 2 am 32°c 24°c
5. 3 am 35°c 24°c
6. 4 am 34°c 23°c
7. 5 am 33°c 22°c
8. 6 am 32°c                       21°c
9. 7am 28°c 19°c
10. 8 am 27°c 19°c

          Data from the table 5.1 shows that the average temperature during the day hours from 11 am to 8 pm is 30.4 and the humidity is …..%

So, it is necessary to increase humidity from …% to …%.

  • Humidity-

          To maintain humidity at 70%, two experiments were conducted as mentioned below:

Exp.1. Spraying of water by the hand spray

In this experiment water is sprayed by hand spray after each one hour. Table 5.2 shows the data of temperatures and humidity during the experiment:

Table no.5.2 Data of temperature and humidity for experiment 1

Sr. no Time Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Water sprayed in lit Humidity (%)
1. 11 am 28°c 23°c 1.30 63
2. 12 am 28°c 24°c 1.70 71
3. 1 am 29°c 24°c 2.00 66
4. 2 am 32°c 26°c 2.20 63
5. 3 am 31°c 25°c 2.20 62
6. 4 am 30°c 25°c 2.30 66
7. 5 am 29°c 24°c 2.40 65.9
8. 6 am 28°c 23°c 2.00 65.2
9. 7am 26°c 21°c 1.90 64
10. 8 am 25°c 20°c 1.80 63

Data from the table 5.2 it is observed that the average temperature during the day hours from 11 am to 8 pm is…..and the humidity is……%  During this experiment required humidity were not maintain throughout the day around 70%.

Exp.2. Spraying water on gunny bag curtain

In this experiment gunny bags used as curtain hanging to the roof from inside the dome and on this curtain water is sprayed using sprinklers and  the pump after one hour interval Table 5.3 shows the data of amount of water sprayed, temperature and humidity during the experiment.

Table no.5.3 Data of temperature and humidity for experiment 2

Sr. no Time Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Water sprayed in (lit) Motor running time in (sec) Humidity (%)
1. 10 am 24°c 20°c 1.30 20 sec 69
2. 11 am 25°c 20°c 1.70   63
3. 12 am 27°c 21°c 2.0 30sec 58
4. 1 am 30°c 24°c 2.20 15 sec 60
5. 2 am 32°c 26°c 2.20 30 sec 63
6. 3 am 33°c 28°c 2.30 15 sec   68
7. 4 am 32°c 26°c 2.40 30 sec 68
8. 5 am 30°c 24°c 2.0   65
9. 6 am 28°c 22°c 1.90 20 sec 66
10. 7 am 26°c 22°c 1.80   72

Data from the table 5.3 shows that the average temperature during the day hours from 11 am to 8 pm is…..and the humidity is……%   So by this experiment humidity is maintain around 70% which is suitable to our requirement.

  • Sprinklers detail-

No of lines-2

Distance between two lines-2.5ft

No of sprinklers- 6

Distance between two sprinklers- 2.3ft

Discharge of each sprinkler- 800ml/min

Wetting diameter of each sprinkler- 1.8m2

  • Water pump details-


Head-3 meter

Discharge of pump-

  • Darkness-

          The darkness is required to the Black soldier flies till pupation period from hatching, so all windows and small holes are closes by the foams and black paper so light does not come from outside and outer temperature don’t affect inside due to the foams.

  • Exhaust fan-

           Install exhaust fan for maintain the ventilation into the dome and to reduce the excess humidity inside the dome.

6. Experiments to attract BSF

                                    There is possibility of BSF flies present in atmosphere naturally as well as in old culture, so two experiments were conducted as follows:

  • In the first experiment 500gm of cow feed taken in a tray and water is mixed into it and this tray kept at a place where external insects can easily attract, the mixture should maintain continuously wet.
    • In second experiment 600gm of old Black soldier flies culture taken and 400gm of 35% poultry feed taken in feeding tray and add 70% of water in it. This tray kept in  puparium for 5-6 days, if some old eggs are present in the culture then after 5-6 days small larvae will hatched.

Design and fabrication of small model

                       To run the project, initially small project model is required with the controlled conditions. A feeding tray and a pupation tray needed inside the model.

Procedure to fabricate the model

  • Cut the square pipe in 60 cm, 50 cm, 40 cm by using cutter machine and welded it to make the frame as shown in the figure.
    • Grind all the corners of the frame by using Grinding machine and also surfaces of the pipe and make it soft.
    • Cut L angle in 20cm length and weld at the base corner as a leg of the model a shown in fig.
    • Purchased Acrylic sheet from Pune and cut it into specific dimensions by referring the size of top, right, left and front sides.
    • These Acrylic sheets are placed on respective sides and pasted by the Acrylic gum.
    • Two hinges fitted at the right side for opening and closing the door of system. 

Tools used for fabricate the model

Various tools were used to fabricate the structure.

  1. Drilling machine
  2. Grinder machine
  3. Cutting machine
  4. Acrylic cutting machine
  5. Arc welding machine
  6. Rivet gun

Coasting of model

Sr. NO Material Price (Rs.)
1 Square pipe 250/-
2 Acrylic 2266/-
3 Sealant 100/-
4 Hinges 20/-
5 Clip 10/-
  Total 2646/-



BSF is refer as the ‘Black soldier flies’ is the insect belonging to the family Animalia and class insecta. This is the ant type insect which converts organic waste into the useable compost and the the larvae having protein and oil rich contents which is used as best feed for poultry as well as fish.  For the growth and production of this insect standard conditions required like temperature around 30°c-35°c, and humidity around 65%-70%, and for the hatching to pupation period darkness is required. So in this project efforts were done to achieve these conditions in enclosed area.


By doing study and performing the various experiments as mentioned in above report toward achieving objectives, it is possible now to maintain desired parameters like temperature around 30°c-35°c , humidity around 70% and darkness for growth and multiplication of Black Soldier Flies. The system is ready now for multiplication of Black Soldier Flies.


1.Cleaning of Dome:

In this section cleaning of the dome is done properly for the free from any other dirt and insect pests.

2.Setting of project structure:

In this section there is necessary settlement is done for actually project run.


For the isolation and to maintain the temperature inside the dome structure there is provide the shadnet at outer side of the dome and inbetween the dome structure and shadenet there is fome is provided for better protection from the sunlight and temperature maintenance inside the dome.

4.Temperature reading:

There is important to keep the daily temperature readings data inside the dome for creating better atmosphere inside the dome. The daily temperature readings data collection is done by placing thermometer. There is dry as well as wet bulb temperature readings are recorded.

5. Installation of exhaust Fan:

There is necessary to maintain the ventilation and fresh air into the dome for proper growth of bsf therefore there is installed a exhaust fan at one window of the dome which is operated on the electricity.

6. Fitting of foam:

There is 4 windows at the dome from which natural light is come, but there is darkness is required for the bsf larvae for their growth. Therefore the windows are closed by the fome as well as for temperature control is done.

7. Placing of black polythene paper:

There is important to keep the darkness into the dome, but from the windows there is some light rays are come therefore there is placing of black polythene paper on the windows at inside in to the dome.

8.Reduction of project structure:

The structure is large due to this there is necessary to reduce. Then cut the structure at one side on four corners and then weld it and placed on table.

9. Repairing of Dome door:

The door of the dome was not in good condition so it is necessary to repair for proper maintain the darkness into the dome. In which placing metal sheet on the door frame by using revets and weld door to the frame.

10. Installation of water pump:

There is proper and standard humidity maintenance should be required,so that for humidity water pump and sprinklers are installed.

11. Wrapping of black paper on rack:

For growing of bsf there is darkness is important so black polythene paper should be wrapped around the tray rack showing in figure.

12. Wrapping of Mosquito net around the structure:

For intercourse of bsf flies there is covering is required so around the structure there is wrapping of Mosquito net showing in the figure.

13. Experiment for attraction of bsf flies;

One experiment is conducted for attraction of bsf flies, there is mixing of fodder and water into the tray due to their smell the bsf flies are attracted.

14.Experiment for Hatching of bsf eggs:

In this experiment there is taking 1kg of culture into that add 70% of water and keep it for 5-6 days for Hatching of eggs at controlled conditions.

15. Setup for bsf:

This image shows the bsf setup in which Bsf larvaes are feed the food and grow.

For further information refer report uploaded below.