)     Need of Azolla growth:

India has the largest livestock population in the world. To meet the present and future demands of the growing human population certain new strategies are to be adapted to meet the input requirements for production of livestock and their byproducts. Though India stands first in the world in terms of milk production and bovine population, average production still needs to be improved; this may be due to low plane of nutrition due to insufficient availability of good quality fodder/feed. This has led to find alternate sources of good quality unconventional feed/fodder for efficient livestock production. The search for alternatives to concentrates/fodder/feed to different species of animals, a wonderful plant called azolla, which holds the promise of providing a sustainable feed for livestock. Since azolla contains most of the nutrients which are required for all classes of livestock including poultry and fish. The azolla can be fed to these animals without any adverse effects. Various studies revealed that feeding of azolla, in dairy cows increases milk production by 15 to 20 per cent. Feeding of azolla in poultry birds improves the weight of broiler chicken and increases the egg production in layers. Hence the azolla can be used as unconventional high potential fee resource for non-ruminants. Above all, for the best performance diets of pullet chicks can be formulate with inclusion of azolla up to 10 per cent. The azolla and salvinia are good sources of minerals and essential amino acids; their usage is limited in pig production due to their low digestible energy. Information obtained from different studies revealed that azolla has high nutrient and it is well accepted by sheep and goats. Azolla can be used as an ideal source of feed for cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and fish as an alternate source to a concentrate / feed / fodder to improve the production status of the animals. And azolla are nitrogen fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural productions and envirmental conservations.

2.3)     Objectives:

  • To develop the system and increase growth rate of Azolla.
  • The system includes ,generating artificial climatic, condition, favorable, maximum growth rate of azolla

Requirements for the growth of Azolla:

Azolla can survive within a water PH range 3.5 to 10 but optimum growth occurs in PH range 4.5 to 7 and temperature range of 18ºC to 26ºC  and Humidity 80 % to 90% light intensity which required for 225 w/ m2  Authored  by Tracy walker by rechuel Campbell 2011)


The optimum photoperiod for Azolla growth 20 hr and recommended illumination 380 E/m2/s with 20hr photoperiod.


Azolla required all the essential elements  that are required by other plant plus molybdenum can essential constituents of nitrogen use and cobalt which are required for Anabaena nitrogen fixation from the soil.


Pinnata are higher nitrate level of 5 mm than nitrogen-free medium Azolla does not require nitrogen in its growing medium the level o nitrogen fixation rate because nitrogen assimilated by both Anabaena and Azolla from atmosphere and water.


Calcium deficient azolla shows an intense reading of the dorsal labs and fronds becomes fragmented roots become short thin and light in color.


In potassium defient plant azolla fronds becomes yellowish brown and its roots becomes dark brown and their growth is stunted.


Azolla is susceptible to attack by pests such as lepaidoterous or dipterrou insects or fungal diseases particularly during hot and humid periods and snail are a common pest for Azolla plant grow in rice field.


Different pesticides have varying effects on Azolla molinate reduced the growth and nitrogen activity of a Pinnata but increased its chlorophyll content and nitrogenize activity.