1. Introduction of incubator 
  2. An incubator is a device simulating avian incubation by keeping eggs warm and in the correct humidity, and if needed to turn them, to hatch them. Reginald Carl A. Sanchez invented this incubator for the eggs even if there is no hen to hatch it.
  3. The purpose of incubatorAn egg incubator is a machine that creates the perfect conditions for an egg to incubate and hatch successfully. An egg incubator is designed to regulate incubation temperature and humidity at perfect levels. It recreates the role that the broody hen plays in nature.



Arduino Nano

trc module

relay modules


some iron roads



jumper wires

egg tray

Process of incubation

Choose a location for the incubator

 To help your incubator maintain a constant temperature, place it where it will receive as little temperature fluctuation as possible. Do not place it near a window where it will be exposed to direct sunlight. The sun’s heat can raise the temperature high enough to kill the developing embryos.

Connect the unit to a dependable electrical source, and make sure the plug cannot be accidentally detached from the outlet. Keep the incubator out of the reach of small children, cats, and dogs. In general, it’s best to keep your incubator on a sturdy surface that won’t be knocked or stepped on, and in a place that has relatively stable temperatures, out of the way of drafts and direct sunlight.

Adjust the conditions:

 In order to successfully hatch chicken eggs, the conditions inside the incubator must be spot on. To prepare the incubator to receive the chicken eggs, you should adjust the conditions inside the incubator to the optimum level.·       


 Chicken eggs should be incubated at a temperature between 99 and 102 degrees Fahrenheit (99.5 is often considered to be ideal). Avoid temperatures outside the 97–103 °F (36–39 °C). Range. If the temperature remains beyond either extreme for several days, hatchability may be severely reduced.·       


The moisture level in the incubator should be about 50 to 65 percent relative humidity (60 percent is often considered the ideal). Moisture is provided by a pan of water under the egg tray. You can use a wet bulb thermometer or a hygrometer to measure humidity. 

Set the eggs:

 Once the conditions inside the incubator have been properly set and monitored for at least 24 hours to confirm stability, it is time to set your eggs. Never set fewer than six eggs. If you try hatching only two or three eggs, and especially if they are shipped eggs, a bad hatch is likely. You may get one chick or none.

   Warm the fertile eggs to room temperature. Allowing the eggs to warm up will decrease the amount and duration of temperature fluctuation in the incubator after you’ve added the eggs. Place the eggs carefully into the incubator. Make sure the eggs are lying on their sides. The larger end of each egg should be slightly higher than the pointy end. This is important as the embryos can become misaligned if the pointy end is higher and may have difficult pipping, or breaking through the shell, when it comes time to hatch.

Allow the temperature to drop after adding the eggs:

 The temperature will temporarily lower after you’ve introduced the eggs into the incubator, but it should readjust if you’ve calibrated the incubator correctly. Don’t increase the temperature to compensate for this fluctuation or you may damage or kill your embryos.

Record the date:

From this, you will be able to estimate the hatching date of your eggs. Chicken eggs take twenty-one days to hatch when incubated at optimal temperature. Older eggs, eggs that were allowed to cool down and eggs that were incubated at too low a temperature, may still hatch–but they will hatch late! If it is Day 21 and your eggs haven’t hatched yet, give them a couple of extra days, just in case!

Turn the eggs daily: 

Eggs should be turned a minimum of three times per day at regular intervals–through five is even better! Some people like to lightly draw an X on one side of the egg so they can more easily keep track of which eggs have been turned. Otherwise, it is easy to lose track of which have been turned, and whether they have been turned all the way over or not.[1]·   

     When turning eggs manually, your hands must be washed and clean before each session to avoid transferring bacteria and oils onto the surface of the egg. Keep turning the eggs until day 18, and then stop to allow the chicks to position themselves properly for hatching.

Adjust the humidity levels in the incubator:

 Humidity should be around 50 to 60 percent throughout incubation, except during the last 3 days when you will want to raise it to 65 percent. You may need higher or lower humidity levels depending on the type of eggs you wish to hatch. Consult your hatchery or the available literature on hatching your species of bird.[2]·    

    Replenish the water in the water pan on a regular basis or the humidity levels will drop too low. Always add warm water. Add a sponge to the water pan if you need to increase the humidity.  

   Measure the humidity level in the incubator using a wet bulb thermometer. Take a reading with the wet bulb thermometer and also record the temperature in the incubator at the time. Consult a chart or psychrometric chart online or in a book to find the relative humidity from the relationship between the wet bulb and dry bulb temperature readings.

Ensure the incubator has adequate ventilation:

 There should be openings on the sides and top of the incubator to allow air flow-check to make sure these are at least partially opened. You will need to increase the amount of ventilation once the chicks begin to hatch.

Candle the eggs after 7 to 10 days :

 Candling the eggs is when you use a light source to view how much space the embryo occupies within an egg. After 7 to 10 days, you should see the development of the embryo. Candling allows you to remove eggs with embryos that are not viable.[2]·        Find a tin can or a box that can fit over a light bulb.·        Cut a hole in the can or box that is smaller in diameter than an egg.·        Turn on the light bulb.·        Take 1 of the incubated eggs and hold it over the hole. If the egg appears clear, the embryo has not developed or the egg may never have been fertile. You should see a cloudy mass if the embryo is developing. The embryo will increase in size as you near the hatch date.·        Remove any eggs that do not show a developing embryo from the incubator.

Prepare for the hatch:

Discontinue turning and rotating eggs 3 days prior to the estimated hatch date. Most viable eggs will hatch within a 24 hour period.·        Place cheesecloth under the egg tray prior to hatching. The cheesecloth will help catch bits of eggshell and other matter during and after the hatch.

       Increase the humidity level in the incubator by adding more water or a sponge.·        Leave the incubator closed until after the chicks hatch.


The incubator is an apparatus that is used for environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity that needs to be controlled. It is often used for growing bacterial cultures, hatching eggs artificially, or providing suitable conditions for a chemical or biological reaction. The incubator is recorded to hatch not only bird eggs, but it also is used to hatch reptile eggs. It allows the fetus inside of the egg to grow without the mother needing to be present to provide the warmth. Chicken eggs are recorded to hatch after about 21 days, but other species of birds can either take a longer or shorter amount of time. An incubator is supposed to be able to set the perfect environment and condition for an egg to incubate because it regulates the factors such as temperature, humidity, and turning the eggs when necessary. This is so that the egg incubated properly because it plays the role of the hen in its natural state. The incubator also allows the egg to incubate while eliminating the external threats that could possibly harm the eggs.[2]

 The modern hatchery manager’s goal is to produce large numbers of uniform, robust day-old chicks. Robustness is a health criterion, originating in the embryonic life stage of the chicken – and correlating directly with the performance and resistance of individual chicks under differing farm conditions.[1] It is possible to incubate different species of birds at the same time within the same incubator. It was also used to raise birds.

The main problem from hatching chicken eggs

Inappropriate Temperature

According to the University of Minnesota, if you want to hatching chicken eggs, the temperature in the incubator should be set between 99 and 102 degrees Fahrenheit. If it is too high or too low, it can result in no development of the embryo, embryos died, chicks that hatch the chicks too early or paralyzed. Temperatures too high for a short period of time can lead to results of the chicks die in their shells.

Humidity inappropriate

For hatching chicken eggs, the level of humidity inside the incubator must be between 50 to 55 percent relative humidity, increase up to 65 percent in the last three days of incubation, according to the University of Minnesota. Inappropriate moisture can cause the chicken paste inside its shell, resulting in suffocation. Inappropriate humidity can also cause chicks die in the shells. We must make sure the right humidity in the incubator, or the embryos will die. A lack of growth of vein in the embryo is a sign that the egg has not been developed sufficiently.
Forecast cost

No.Name of thing Quantity
Forecast cost
1motor 1 only1100

2arduino1 bord only360
3Jumper wires1 sensor150
4Arduino cable2 cables120
52 Chanel relay module2 bords150
6 Some iron roads———–100
7Total cost