Flood and Drain systems (Empty Bilt Bucket (ebb) and Flow) are precisely timed hydroponic systems where in growers periodically flood their grow tray and allow nutrient solution to drain away.

The flood cycle is timed to allow plants optimal nutrient intake.

A Flood and Drain system fills several times daily.


1.To study the flood and drain system of hydroponic system

2.To design and fabricate experimental setup of flood and drain system for mari gold.

3.To study select a dosing of nutrient and appropriate media for the marigold plant.

4.To take trials an system and analyzing the data with respect to growth patterns.

Reason for selecting flood and drain system:

The trials taken for marigold in flood and drain hydroponic system showed better results as compared to other hydroponics system ,so we selected flood and drain method to design a system.

Drawing design:

2D sketch of pot system:

Fig.No-4 2D design of system with dimensions

Different parameter like dimension of pot and no.of pot in a series were considered.

Reasons for selecting this system:

  • Ease of fabrication.
  • Ease of functioning.
  • Ease of mobility.
  • Material availability.

Design parameter

1.The structure is 110 cm in height and length is 138cm .

2.The dimension of pot is about height of 12cm, top diameter is 13 and bottom diameter is 9cm .

3.We used 5 pots for set up and distance between two pot is 15 cm. And crop to crop distance is 35 cm

4. Each pot is approximately 1 liter in capacity and whole system is 5 liter .

calculation of volume of pot –

  • Bottom diameter of pot = 9cm
  • height of pot = 12cm
  • Top diameter of pot. =13cm
  • Volume of pot =πr2h


= 763.41ml

Approximately = 1 liter

whole system is of 5 liters.



1 Pipe system –

  • Main line
  • submain line
  • T joint
  • Elbow joint
  • Grommet
  • Control valves

2) Electronic-

  • Wire
  • Top pin
  • Adapter
  • 18 W pump
  • Arduino Nano
  • Relay
  • Jumper wires

21-2–22 to 26-2-22

Bill of material:


1. After buying material, cut the drip pipe of 30 cm length and joined it with T joint and elbow joint.

Figure No.4: Cutting of drip pipe
Figure No.5: Joining of Tee and elbow joint

2.For placing the reservoir we dig a pit of 30 cm and placed reservoir in it.

Figure No.6: digging of pit

3.Drill the hole of 16 mm to pot and connect the whole system.

4. Wooden sheet was taken for placing pot and it was cut to desired dimensions.

Figure No.7: Cutting of wooden sheet
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Figure No 8: Setting of pipe on sheet
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Figure No.9 : Drilling to wooden sheet

5.setup of hydroponic was done

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Figure No 10 : Set up

28-2-22 to 6-3-22


  • I used a submersible water pump of 18W which can pump water upto a height of 1.85m and then calculated the amount of time it took to fill the container.
  • It took 33 seconds to completely fill the container.
  • Once the container is filled i.e after 33 sec the arduino commands the relay to turn the pump off and the pump stops pumping the water.
  • The moment pump stops pumping the water due to gravity water is pulled in downward direction into the bucket that is placed below.


Fig.no- process flow diagram of electronic device


Testing on hydroponic system for marigold and adjust the setup.



As it is a circulation manifold the first pot used to get filled very quickly as compared to remaining pots .Due to this the last pot s remained half filled.


To solve the above the problem we measured the land slope and adjust the height of the system.


There was a timer available which we have used for system the timer was set at 55 sec ,but the system gets overflow .


To solve the problem of overflowing I have provided control valve to main pipe.

07-03-2022 To 13-03-2022


Marigold is one of the most commonly grown flowers for garden decoration and extensively used as loose flowers for making garland for religious and social functions. planting the marigold crop in pot. variety of marigold is African marigold. I have used growing media as brick stone .

Scientific name: Tagetes erecta

Variety: African marigold

Family: Daisy family

Crop duration: 130-150 days

Flowering stage: beginning from 60 days after

Figure No 11 :final setup of after planting

collect information of nutrient content for marigold.


Marigolds require a low to medium level of fertility at 100 to 200 ppm N. The optimal pH range is between 5.8 to 6.2.EC 1:2 extraction-0.4 to 0.9ms/cm

14/03/2022 to 26/03/2022

The following are dosing which we have used for the system.

The total system is of 15 litres therefore we made dosing according to 15 litres.

  1. Ca(NO3)2

Required Nitrogen – 220 ppm

Required Calcium – 88ppm

N = 220/0.15 = 1466 mg

C = 1466×19/100 = 278.5 mg

278 mg × 15litres = 4.17 gm.

2. K2SO4

Required Potassium – 150 ppm

K = 150/0.50 = 300 mg

300× 15 = 4.5gm

3. MgSO4

Required Magnesium – 35 ppm

Mg = 35×100/9.6 = 364 mg

364 × 15= 5.46gm

4. Humic acid 0.1 ml = 0.1 × 15 = 1.5ml

5. Chill mix =1g.

After applying fertilizer Daily chek the PH,EC,TDS.by using TDS And EC meter ,PH meter.

Figure No 12 : Determination of EC and TDS

Daily Determination of PH,EC,TDS.

19/03/22 5.41334627
29/03/22 6.9798356
Table no 1- Determination of pH,EC,TDS

All plants are required C,H,O,N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Zn,Cu,B,Mb etc nutrient

1100gm of plant required following dosing ratio

N-10,P-1, K-1, Ca-0.5, mg-0.5, S-0.5

1100 gm of Marigold crop requires following nutrient.

Nitrogen – 40 gm

Phosphrous – 4 gm

Potassium – 4 gm

Calcium – 2 gm

Magnesium – 2 gm

Sulphur – 2 gm

  1. K2SO4

Molecular mass of k2SO4 is 174.25

In 100 gm of k2SO4 there is 45 % of K i,e 45 gm

Plant need 4 gm of K

Now, 45 = 100

4 = x

Therefore 45 * x = 4 * 100

x = 400/45

K = 8.8 gm

In 100 gm of K2SO4 there is 18.40 of S

i,e 18.4 gm

Therefore = 18.40 = 100

x = 8.8

18.40 * 8.8 = 100 * x

x = 18.40 * 8.8 / 100

x = 1.61

2. MgSO4

In 100 gm of MgSO4 there is 26.197 of S

S = 26.19 = 100

2 = x

26.19 * x = 2 * 100

26.19x = 200

x = 200/26.19

S = 7.6 gm

In 100 gm of MgSO4 there is 20.19 %

Mg = 20.19 = 100

x = 7.6

20.19 * 7.6 = 100x

20.19 * 7.6/100 = x

Mg = 1.53 gm

After 20 days growth of plant

Figure No 13 : plant growth

26/03/22 to 3/04/22

Three tree had root rot. Root rot is a disease that attacks the roots of tree growing in wet or damp soil.

Causes of root roting – The main cause is pore space available in the media ( brick). So growth of bacteria more and bacteria absorb the nutrient and they effect to plant root.

Preventing and control– Applying Trichoderma powder. Trichoderma is a genus of soil dwelling fungi found all over the world that are highly effective at colonizing many kind of plant roots ,and inhibiting fungi that cause many types of diseases.

Future No 14:- Root roting of plant

04/04/22 to 10/04/22

Figure No 15 :- plant growth (6/4/22)
Figure No 16: Applying Trichoderma powder to plants(7/4/22)
Figure No.17 Plant growth after 30 days

11/04/22 To 18/04/22

After discussion decided to change the media because of the problem of root roting.

Component – Using media as MBBR, Gravel and one pot is empty .

MBBR– Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR).

Flow chart of system

Figure No 18 – flow diagram of system

figure no19 -setup of system

19/04/22. To 24/04/22

Harvesting of marigold flowers

Figure No. 20 Growth of flowers

Planting – planting in gravel ,MBBR,and open pot .

applying same nutrient in this system .

Figure no 20. : Planting of marigold

25/04/22 TO 01/04/22


Result and discussion

  1. The hydroponic flood and drain system is suitable for marigold.
  2. Through design thinking process the system is ideated and designed appropriate for experimental setup.
  3. Composition of fertilizer dosing is found very suitable in pieces of bricks for better growth of marigold in flood and drain hydroponic system.
  4. By analysing it is found that in flood and drain system marigold have more vegetation and flowering growth as compare to control one. in flood and drain system 1st  harvesting of flowers are  done in 45 days after transplanting while in normal field it takes 60 days.

Concluding Note-